Index of enslaved people

Belmont Research By Family Groups/Chronology
research done by Erica Hayden, Ph.D.

SLAVES

Betsy and Children

Betsy: A house slave given to Adelicia by her father, O.B. Hayes in 1839. She was listed on the September 1847 inventory of Isaac Franklin’s estate. She was also found on the May 1849 marriage contract as belonging to Adelicia. She was still with Adelicia in October, 1857. She was the mother of Harriet, James, Alexander, Joseph, Amanda, and Ive.

  • Alexander: Son of Betsy. He was given to Adelicia by her father, O.B. Hayes, in 1839. He was listed in the September 1847 inventory of Isaac Franklin’s estate. Alexander was also found on the marriage contract in May of 1849 as belonging to Adelicia. He was still with Adelicia in October of 1857. He might be known as James Alexander, and he was the sibling of Harriet, James (could be James Alexander), Joe/Joseph, Ive, and Amanda.
  • Amanda: Daughter of Betsy. She was given to Adelicia by her father, O.B. Hayes, in 1839. She was listed in the September 1847 inventory of Isaac Franklin’s estate. Amanda was also found on the marriage contract in May of 1849 as belonging to Adelicia. She was still with Adelicia in October of 1857. Most likely, she is the cook referred to in a letter from Adelicia in October of 1868. By April 1869, Adelicia had a new cook. She was the sibling of Harriet, James, Alexander, Joe/Joseph, and Ive. She is possibly the same Amanda [with no last name given] who was buried in the Nashville City Cemetery on March 10, 1871.
  • Harriet: She is the daughter of Betsy. She was given to Adelicia by her father, O.B. Hayes in 1839. She was listed in the September 1847 inventory of Isaac Franklin’s estate. She was also found on the May 1849 marriage contract as belonging to Adelicia. She was still with Adelicia in October of 1857. She was the sibling of James, Alexander, Joe/Joseph, Ive, and Amanda.
  • Ive: She is the daughter of Betsy, born after September of 1847 but before May of 1849. She was listed on the marriage contract as belonging to Adelicia. She was still with Adelicia in October 1857. She was the sibling of Harriet, James, Alexander, Joe/Joseph, and Amanda.
  • James: He is the son of Betsy, and might be known as James Alexander. He was given to Adelicia by her father, O.B. Hayes in 1839. He was listed in the September 1847 inventory of Isaac Franklin’s estate. He was also found on the May 1849 marriage contract as belonging to Adelicia. He was still with Adelicia in October of 1857. He was the sibling of Harriet, Alexander, Joe/Joseph, Ive, and Amanda.
  • Joseph: He is the son of Betsy. He was given to Adelicia by her father, O.B. Hayes in 1839. He was listed in the September 1847 inventory of Isaac Franklin’s estate. He was also found on the May 1849 marriage contract as belonging to Adelicia. He was still with Adelicia in October of 1857. He was the sibling of Harriet, James, Alexander, Ive, and Amanda. In 1860, Adelicia wrote that Joe was to help Mary to put up lace curtains at Belmont. There are also accounts of a Joe who was to wash the flowerpots after Mr. McGrady emptied them in November of 1856. He may be the same Joe/Joseph. In the 1880 and 1881 Nashville City Directories, there is a Joseph Acklen, listed as being African-American, working as a laborer at 121 N. Cherry Street. In 1880 his home address was N. Spruce near Gay, and in 1881, Quarry near Line. The 1881 directory lists another African-American Joseph Acklen, also working as a laborer at the Union Stockyard, with a residence on Clinton, near Walnut.

Baker and Snowden Families
Baker, John: Born ca. 1820. He was a slave at Fairview, according to records dated September 28, 1847, and is 27 years old at the time. Married to Betsy or Bettie Baker.

  • Baker, Betsy or Bettie: Born ca. 1825 at Mount Vernon, Virginia. Purchased by Isaac Franklin from John Washington, adopted son of George Washington. She was a slave at Fairview, according to records dated September 28, 1847, and is listed as being 20 years old at the time. On October 9, 1857, she is listed as being given to Adelicia by her father, O.B. Hayes. Married to John Baker. Died in 1923 at Peach Valley in Sumner County. She is listed as having at least 9 children – the 1910 census noted that she had 15, with 6 still alive. One of her sons, Ruffin Baker, born ca. 1846, has more information listed under his own entry below. Besides Ruffin, Betsy/Bettie also had son Mark Baker, born in 1853 or 1847 according to some records. He married a woman named Fannie who lived from 1861 to before 1900. She also had a daughter Hanna Baker, born in February 1858. These two children are easily traceable because Betsy/Bettie lived with her adult children towards the end of her life. The 1900 census lists Hanna, age 42, as head of household, living with her brother, Mark, age 53, nephews Willie, age 22, Mark age 18, and another illegible named nephew, age 15, and her mother Betsy, age 80. In 1910, Mark, age 56, Hanna, age 53, and Bettie, age 90, are all residing together. In 1920, Mark, age 68, lived with Hanna, age 64, both of whom could read and write, lived with Betsy, age 107 (more likely 101), who could not read or write. The age discrepancies are within a logical margin of error for census records.
  • Ruffin: He is most likely the son of Bettie/Betsy and John Baker. He was listed as being two years old on a September 28, 1847 inventory. He was born ca. 1846, and married Mary Jane Sergeant (born 1850), on April 23, 1870. They had the following children: John (born 1869), Celina (born April 1882), Alex (born October 1892), and Anna May (born June 1893). Two grandchildren are also listed in the records, Brutus (born September 1892) and Margaret or Martha Ann (born August 1889). There is a Mark Baker, who is likely the son of Ruffin, not listed in the notes above. He was born in April 1875, and married in 1895 to a Hannah who was also born in April 1875. According to the 1910 census, Mark and Hannah, both age 34, lived with their children, Henry, age 14 (born May 1896), Anthony, age 11 (born June 1899), Parker, age 8, Jennie, age 6, and another son Dorrey[?], age 3.

Aggie: According to family tradition, Aggie was the personal maid to Adelicia and travels with the family to New York. While there, she meets Sam; and they marry. Aggie remains in New York until his death and then moves back to Fairvue. Adelicia’s son, William Acklen, refers to her as the children’s nurse. It is believed that she is the mother of Eva Snowden Baker, whose portrait hangs in Pauline’s room at Belmont Mansion.

  • Baker, Eva Snowden: Born ca. 1856, and died in 1939. According to family tradition, she was Adelicia’s personal maid or personal dresser. She lived at Fairview. It appears that she was married three times. We believe her maiden name to be Snowden, but it is possible that her first marriage was to a Snowden, and perhaps to a Lane and Baker, according to her children’s surnames. One of her marriages was to Mark Baker (b. ?, d. 1940). He was one of nine children of Betsy Baker, who was born in 1825 at Mount Vernon in Virginia and died in Sumner County. (The 1870 census for Sumner County lists an Eva, age 12, daughter of Richard, age 28, and Hannah, age 22, Dixon. This Eva has a sister, Dinah, age 3. This family is only a possible match for Eva Snowden Baker.) The 1900 census listed her as Eva Snowden, age 45, having eight children and head of the household. At least five of her children were by Mark Baker. In 1900 she lived with Peter Snowden, age 23 (born March 1877), Nela or Sarah Lane, age 17 (born May 1883, although some records say 1893), Gus Lane, age 13, (born August 1886 or 1889), Baby Love Baker, age 8 (born June 1891), Eldrich or Eldridge Baker, age 6 (born November 1894), Ruffin Baker, age 3, (born November 22, 1895 or 1896), and Bennie Baker, age 6 months (born November 1899). By 1900, she was living in Peach Valley, Sumner County, with a number of other former slaves from Fairview. She cannot be found in the 1910 census. In 1920, the Sumner County census lists her as 61 years old, living with a Ben, age 40; an illegible male name, age 38; Wilkins, age 34, and Gertrude, age 30. The 1930 census has her listed as living with her sister Sally Ann Smith, who is a widow. They are living in Peach Valley. Eva is listed as being able to read and write.

Brutus and Fanny
Brutus: He was Isaac Franklin’s valet. His wife was Fanny/Frances. He was given to Adelicia by Isaac in his will. He was sent to Louisiana (Angola Plantation) in September 1847 as he might have been involved in/sympathetic to the attempted murder of the overseer at Fairview. Following Adelicia’s marriage to Joseph Acklen, he became Joseph’s valet. He was sold in New Orleans in March of 1857 for “drinking all winter and behaving very badly.” He had been jailed on several occasions. In 1857 or thereafter, he was purchased by a General Pike and taken to Little Rock, Arkansas. Records note that Adelicia wrote on April 29, 1857 that he had been sold in New Orleans from Angola Plantation. He died on December 22, 1869, having by this time taken the last name of Jackson. In a newspaper story about him, the article tells of his story and his recovery from heavy drinking.

  • Fanny/Frances: She is most likely the wife of Brutus. She was a house servant given to Adelicia by Isaac Franklin in his will in 1846. It is still unclear (and will probably remain so) if this is the same Frances that is the children’s nurse. (See separate entry below.)

Maria and Children
Maria: She was a house slave given to Adelicia by her father, O.B. Hayes in 1839. She was listed on the inventory of Isaac Franklin’s estate in September of 1847. She was also found on the marriage contract in May of 1849 as belonging to Adelicia. She was still with Adelicia in October of 1857. She was the mother of Ezekiel, William, and Mary Ann.

  • Ezekiel or Zeke: Son of Maria. He was given to Adelicia by her father, O.B. Hayes in 1839. He is listed in the September 1847 inventory of Isaac Franklin’s estate. He is also found on the May 1849 marriage contract as belonging to Adelicia. He is the sibling of William, and Mary Ann.
  • Mary Ann: Daughter of Maria. She was given to Adelicia by her father, O.B. Hayes in 1839. She was listed on the inventory of Isaac Franklin’s estate in September of 1847. She was also found on the marriage contract in May of 1849 as belonging to Adelicia. She was still with Adelicia in October of 1857. In 1860, Adelicia wrote that Joe was to help Mary put up lace curtains at Belmont. She was to regulate the house as well. She was the sibling of Ezekiel and William. This Mary could be the same as Mary Fleming, an African American servant listed as working at Belmont in 1870. The census listed her as being 28 years old and born in Tennessee. If she was a year old or less in 1839, her actual age would be 31 in 1870. The difference of 3 years is very much within the range of age mistakes found in census records. For more information on Mary Fleming, see her listing under the servants section.
  • William Acklen: He was born sometime between September 1847 and May 1849. He was the son of Maria, who was given to Adelicia by her father, O.B. Hayes, in 1839. While not listed on the 1847 inventory of Isaac Franklin’s estate, he was found on the May 1849 marriage contract as belonging to Adelicia. In 1866, a William Acklen, age 19, who was a former slave of Adelicia’s and still a servant of hers after the war, was called as a witness for damages that occurred at Belmont during the Civil War. This would make his birth year 1847. An 1857 list of slaves who were given to Adelicia by O.B. Hayes, lists a William after Maria’s name. We know that Ezekiel and Mary Ann were Maria’s children, and their names follow their mother’s on the list. Because William follows Ezekiel and Mary Ann’s names, he was likely born after 1847.

A William Acklen or William Ackers married a Rosa Powers by Reverend Lemon on September 28, 1865 in Davidson County. [book 5, page 75]
William A. Acklen married Mary A. Boyd on April 4, 1889 by J.M. Mitchell in Davidson County. [book 9, page 155]
The 1890 Nashville City Directory listed William Acklen who lived on Deluge Street. This person is not listed in the 1889 or 1891 directory. A William (Billy) Acklen died July 31, 1890, age 70. He was married and was born in Tennessee, residing on Deluge Street. He died of dysentery, and his death was certified by Dr. Richard Cheatham [Dr. William A. Cheatham’s son]. He was buried at Mt. Ararat Cemetery. This is probably not the same William Acklen in that this man would have been born around 1820, and the William in most of Belmont’s records should have been born ca. 1847. A Mary Acklen, widow of William, was living at 819 High Street in 1896.
Another William Acklen was also found in the directories. The 1889 and 1890 Nashville City Directories listed a William R. Acklen as a driver. By 1893, he was listed as a salesman. In 1900, 1902, 1903, 1909, and 1913, he is a painter. There is a William D. Acklen listed in the 1900 directory as a porter. It is difficult to know whether any of these men are the same William Acklen who lived at Belmont.

Individual Slaves
Elizabeth: “House girl,” sold by December 20, 1855.
Frances: She is probably the same Frances that was the children’s nurse. She was mentioned in December, 1857 of taking care of the baby. William later referred to her as the “family Nanny.” She was also mentioned in a letter from Adelicia in April of 1860.
Gant [aka Grant], Ben: He was born ca. 1831. He was at Fairview in September of 1847. In 1848, Adelicia “hires” him, and he was still with her in September of 1854. By March of 1861, he was “attached” to the Angola Plantation and was married to Maria Gant [Grant] who was born ca. 1841. They have a son, also named Ben. Vertical Record at the Sumner County Archives, Mortgage Statement, March 15, 1861 in New Orleans.
Georgiana: Given to Adelicia by Isaac Franklin in his will.
Gibbs, Rena: Born ca. 1833. She was listed on the inventory at Fairview on September 28, 1847, where she was part of the house staff. Her mother was Maria Gibbs, born ca. 1815. By September 1847, Rena had two younger sisters, Louisiana, born ca. 1838, and Rachael, born ca. 1841. She also had a brother, Martin, born ca. 1845. She was “hired” by Adelicia in 1848 from the Trustees of the Franklin Institute. By September¬ of 1854, she had two children, names unknown. In November of 1857, she is mentioned in a letter as being at Belmont after the Acklens had left for Louisiana. Vertical Record at the Sumner County Archives.
London: Buried at Old City Cemetery on February 16, 1850 on the Poplar lot, number 200. He was listed as the slave of J.A.S. Acklen at the time of death. His age was unrecorded, as was his cause of death. He lived at Adelicia’s house on Cherry Street. Nashville City Cemetery Records (5-1862: 133) – found online at the Nashville Public Library website.
Maricus: Given to Adelicia by Isaac Franklin in his will.
Mortimer: He was listed in Adelicia’s marriage contract in May of 1849. There is no record of him before or after this document.
Randolph: He was a slave impressed by the Federal Army to build Fort Negley in 1862. Employment Rolls and Nonpayment Rolls of Negroes Employed in the Defenses of Nashville, Tennessee, 1862-1863. File #98, Tennessee State Library and Archives.
Salley: Listed as “servant to Cpl. Joseph A.S. Acklim” when buried at the Old City Cemetery on March 21, 1862 in the “Negro lot” number 400. She was 23 years old and died of “Pneumonie.” Nashville City Cemetery records (5-1862:133). Found online at the Nashville Public Library website.